Mexico has an area of 1 964 375 km², making it the 14th largest country in the world and the third largest in Latin America (“Mexico”, 2017).
Mexico is the eleventh most populous country in the world, with an estimated population of 119 million people in 2015.3 Most of them have Spanish as their mother tongue, which the state recognizes as the national language along with 67 indigenous languages the nation (“Mexico”, 2017). About 287 languages are spoken in the country; Due to the characteristics of its population, it is the most populous Spanish-speaking country, as well as the seventh most linguistically diverse country in the world.
The human presence in Mexico goes back 14,000 years before the present. After thousands of years of cultural development, Mesoamerican, Aridoamerican and Oasisamerican cultures emerged in the Mexican territory. After nearly 300 years of Spanish domination, Mexico began the struggle for political independence in 1810. Subsequently, for nearly a century the country was involved in a series of internal wars and foreign invasions that had repercussions in all areas of life of Mexicans. During much of the twentieth century (mainly the first half) a period of great economic growth took place within a policy dominated by a single political party.
According to the World Tourism Organization, Mexico is the main tourist destination in Latin America and the ninth most visited in the world (INEGI, 2015). This is due in large measure to the 32 cultural or natural sites that are considered by Unesco as a World Heritage Site, and it is in this sense the first on the continent and sixth in the world.